What is MGNAREGA and How it is creating jobs in Villages

 When you visit any village throughout India , you will find people working  in groups to create structures for village development. These people usually works under MGNREGA scheme in which Government pays them for their work. 

So when we talk about unemployment , it is defined as a condition in which a person doesn't have any work to do to earn money. And this situation was emerged as a big problem across country until year 2005.

To meet out the problem of Unemployment , Government of India introduced a labour law act in 2006 as National Rural Employment Guarantee act, 2005 (NREGA). This act was passed on 23rd August , 2005 under UPA government of Prime minister Dr. Manmohan singh . 

 Later the NAREGA act was renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee act (MGNREGA). 

Why Mgnrega not launched in 1991 why it launched in 2006 after 15 years?

As we know ,the act was first proposed in 1991 by P.V. Narsimha Rao. It was first implemented in 625 district of India as an pilot experience.  Later in 2008, MGNAREGA was scoped up to cover all districts in India. 

So the reason for not launching MGNREGA in 1991 is that it was a new concept or idea  , so it is necessary to analyze  the impacts or result  of this project. So at  first some pilot experiment were implemented for few years for analysis.

image source :downtoearth 

Objectives of MGNAREGA  

The primary objective of the MGNREGA Act is provide social security with aim to guarantee "Right to work ".

It is aimed to provide livelihood securities of households in rural area of country by providing at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in every financial year to every household whose adult members  volunteer to do unskilled manual work and for matters connected therewith.

Now if we talk about another object of MGNAREGA , it is aims to create durable assets like roads, canals, water harvesting structures, agriculture field developments etc for villages. 

So in shorts we can say, it offers people to work for their own village development with providing employment to them. Government is entitled to provide minimum wages under this act. 

There is compulsory 100 days employment mentioned in Act , but many government has increased the days as per their feasibility.  Like in Rajasthan Budget 2022, CM has announced to provide 125 days of employment instead of 100 days.

What kind of Work Executed in MGNREGA ?

 MGNREGA is mainly implemented by Gram Panchayat and involvement of contractor is banned in it. In MGNREGA , there are certain types of work defined under the scheme for village development as community works and individual beneficiary works.
 Work executed in MGNAREGA are following:

  • Water harvesting structured like Pond, dugout ponds, open trenches for soil conservation, Pond renovation works , earthen check dam , Check dams, drainage treatment , canal construction , canal renovation etc . 
  • Pasture works : Pasture development works , plantation, nusrsary development, fruit plantation, organic seed development, grass land development for cattle , open trenches for water and soil conversations etc .
  • Individual Beneficiary work : Agriculture land development works, field bunding , vegetation on field bunds, Land leveling , cattle shed development , Farm pond construction for water harvesting , varmi composed pit for organic fertilizer development etc. 
  • Other works : Sports field development in schools, construction of any building for village etc. 
Basically work executed under this act are identified by Gram panchayat keeping the view of village development and employment generation. 

MGNREGA Report 2021-2022

If we look at the details reports of MGNREGA for year 2021-2022 on their official site , than we can find that :
  • There are total 16.32 cr. active workers.
  • Total 6.15 cr. assets created till date. 
  • Total 302.71 Cr. person days generated till date. 
  • Total 44.59 Cr. DBT transaction done . 
  • Total 6.9 Cr. household benefited.
  • Total 2.6 Cr. individual category works have been completed.     

One of the best things happened in MGNREGA is that, all the work process has been digitized. Now every work executed is being geo-tagged with progress app and attendance of person doing the job is  also taken through mobile application.

And all workers get their wage amount through Direct beneficiaries transfer (DBT).

Know more about MGNREGA at https://nrega.nic.in/Nregahome/MGNREGA_new/Nrega_home.aspx