Know about Air pollution - cause , effect and control

 Air pollution become the major threat to life in various cities. It will late if still we don't take any correct action now.

Air Pollution

Whenever we go through a big city, we generally observe smoke releasing from factories, bike, car and other machinery.  And when you feel sick, trouble in breathing and eye itching there, that is because of Air pollution.

So the first question is what is pollution of air?

Air Pollution

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Basically pollution is defined as an addition or excessive addition of certain materials to the physical environment like water, air and land, which make it less fit or unfit for life.

So air pollution of defined as reduction in quality of air by addition of a certain material to it.

Or we can say the presence in atmosphere of one or more contaminants in such quality and for such duration as it is injurious, or tends to be injurious, to human health or welfare, animal or plant life.

Air pollution is the result of increasing traffic, growing cities, rapid economic development and industrialization.

Causes of Air pollution

The basic cause of air pollution is increased contamination of air pollutant in air composition.  Some of the major air pollutant are carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), choloroflorocarbons (CFC), lead, ozone, suspended particulate matter (SPM), sulphur dioxide (SO2 ) and smog.

Carbon monoxide (CO):  

Carbon monoxide is produced by the incomplete burning of carbon based fuels like petrol, diesel and wood. It is colorless and odorless gas.

Excessive carbon monoxide lower the amount of oxygen that enters our blood and make us confused and sleepy.

Carbon dioxide (CO2):

Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas which causes for higher atmospheric temperature. It is produced from buring of coal, oil and natural gas.

Air pollution
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Lead :

Lead is a dangerous component for environment. It is present is petrol, paint, hair dye products, batteries etc.  It can cause nervous system damage , digestive problem and cancer.

Suspended particulate matter (SPM):

Suspended particles are present in the air in form of smoke , dust, and vapor . SPM can remain in the air for long period and also affect the visibility of living thing or human.

They can also affect our lung and respiratory system through our breathing system as finer particles.

Ozone :

Ozone layer is naturally available in upper layer of atmosphere which protects us from harmful ultraviolet rays of sun. But it’s higher concentration at ground results in air pollution.

The major sources of ozone emission are vehicles and industries. Ozone gas makes our eyes itch, burn and water. It also lowers our resistant to cold and pneumonia.

Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is produced from burning coal. The major emission of SO2 is from thermal power plants, paper mill and smelting of metals.

Higher concentration of sulphur dioxide causes for smog and acid rain.  It can also lead to lung diseases.


 Smog is the combination of fog and smoke. “Smog” term  was first used by Dr. H A Des Voeux in 1905.

So smog is condition of fog with smoke in it. Smog causes for difficult breathing conditions. It is combination of various gases with water vapor and dust.

Smog occurrence is often linked to heavy traffic, high temperature and calm wind. During the winter, wind speed is low and cause the smoke and fog to stagnate near ground, hence pollution level can increase near ground level.

Higher smog results in respiratory problem,  lower visibility and decrease in vitamin D production in environment.

Biological pollutant

Biological pollutant includes pollen from plants, mite and hair from pets , fungi, parasites and some bacteria.  Most of them are allergen and can cause asthma, hay fever and other allergic diseases.

Fly ash

In present scenario, fly ash becomes the major reason for air pollution in many big cities. Ash produces from combustion of solid material.

Fly ash is the residue which rises with the gases into the atmosphere. Fly ash is a very fine power and tends to travel far in the air. Higher fly ash results in respiratory problems .

Fly ash slowly settles on leaves and crops in fields in area near to thermal power plant and reduces the crop or plant yield.

Air pollution control measures/ Control of air pollution

In the growing world, there is need to adopt proper control measure to mitigate air pollution to safe our future generation. Many countries have adopted various control measure to reduce the emission of air pollutant.

 So there are few method which should be adopted to control the air pollution :

Air pollution can be reduced by destroying the pollutant by thermal or catalytic combustion.

We can convert harmful air pollutant to less toxic form.

The gaseous pollutants can be controlled through the techniques of combustion, absorption and adsorption.

Air pollution can reduced by controlling the automobile exhaust  by adopting efficient engine , use of good quality fuel , lead free fuel  and use of compressed natural gases.

Government should frame and adopt tough policies to control emission from industries and vehicles.

Plant and trees is the natural air pollution controller, so we should plant more trees to control the air pollution.

Our safe future is totally depend upon our present actions, if still we do not any control measure for air pollution , we will definitely get in  trouble in near future.

In many documentaries we see the people wearing oxygen mask in coming future. That will be true if we will take any action. We know industrialization is necessary for growth and development but we should adopt sustainable development policies.

It’s time to wake up for a call of nature. Save environment by controlling air pollution.


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