Rain water Harvesting and Its Importance


Rain Water harvesting is used to collect the rain water and store it for future need. So basically rain water harvesting holds the rain water runoff to fulfill the need of humans and animals.

Rain water harvesting is the oldest and simple method of water conservation for society. In rain water harvesting, rainwater is collected from rivers, streams or roofs and redirected to a wells, recharge shaft, borehole, aquifer or a reservoir with percolation.

The harvested water can be used for livestock, irrigation, gardening, drinking, sanitation and other water related application. Rain water is also used for ground water recharge for long term storage.

From the ancient time , we have used different type of water harvesting techniques such as bawadi, madakas, Ahar pynes, surangas, taankas etc.

Rain-water-harvesting-methods

Need of Rain water harvesting

We know water is limited on earth, only 3 percent of total available as fresh water on earth.

As we know the population of world is growing continuously but fresh water availability is decreasing. So to meet the increasing need of population, there is need for water conservation.

Human need water for drinking, sanitation, agriculture and industries. Increasing population means more water requirement.

In many of the countries, water scarcity becomes the major environment concern as water resources have been degraded due to climate change. We have extracted t natural resources to such an extent that now we are facing various environmental issues over the world.

So to meet the demand of water for our purpose, rain water harvesting and ground water recharge is the best method. As these water harvesting methods help to hold the runoff rain water and store it to fulfill the need.

Techniques of rainwater harvesting system 

In rain water harvesting, our purpose is to conserve rain water as much possible. So basically two techniques are used for rain water harvesting. One is surface runoff water harvesting and another is ground water recharge.

Surface runoff harvesting

Most part of rain water flows away as surface runoff as streams and rivers due to slope. In this method surface runoff water is stored by diverting the flow of streams into water reservoirs on the surface or underground.

Surface runoff water harvesting help to store water for farming, drinking, sanitation and general domestic purpose.

The stream and river water is harvested by construction of anicuts, check dams, and earthen bund. But in urban areas rooftop rainwater harvesting is become a good method for surface runoff harvesting.

In rooftop water harvesting method, rooftop rainwater is harvested through recharge pit, recharge trench, tube well and recharge well. In which the stored water can be used in future for domestic purpose.

Ground water recharge method

In ground water recharge, water moves downward from surface to groundwater aquifer due to hydraulic process. Surplus surface runoff water can be used to recharge groundwater aquifer through various techniques and method.

The ground water aquifer also serves as a distribution system through recharging wells and tube well. And these recharged aquifers are used for irrigation and drinking purpose for most people in this world.

In rural areas , rainwater is harvested through contour bund, gully plug, dug well recharge, mini-percolation tanks, percolation tanks, sunken ponds, check dams, earthen bunds and recharge shaft.
Ground water recharge helps store water for long duration without affecting the quality of water.


Advantage of Rain water harvesting system

Rainwater harvesting structures are cost effective and provide high quality water for our need. The maintenance cost of the structures is less compare to other method which need purifying and pumping.

If we look at the ecological benefits of rain water harvesting, they are immense. Rainwater harvesting methods help to reduce flood and load on drainage system. Rain water harvesting methods reduces land wastage and water pollution.

Rain water harvesting minimizes the drying up of rivers by holding runoff water.

Rain water harvesting methods helps to reduce soil erosion and flood hazards by collecting rain water.

These methods help to reduce the flow of storm water to prevent urban flooding.

Rainwater harvesting conserve chemical free rain water for long duration which can be used for irrigation purpose and it help farmers to increase the crop production.

Rainwater harvesting increase the productivity of aquifer resulting in rise of ground water level. So rainwater harvesting method should be adopted in area of low water level.




Conclusion


Water conservation is the only solution to address the water scarcity around the world. Incorporation of rainwater harvesting is essential for each community on earth. These water harvesting method are sustainable and efficient for the society which can help us to fight against the upcoming water scarcity.
Government should frame the effective policies to incorporate the use of rainwater harvesting system at village and urban .
The real success of any movement is only possible when people participate with positive energy. So we should motivate people to participate in save water movements to fight water scarcity.


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